Comprehensive Guide to Buying Your First Shotgun

Now that you’ve seen a sample of what you can do with a shotgun, now the question is, what gun do I buy? While this is definitely not a simple answer, I will try to walk you through the different types of shotguns, how they work, and guide you to what would work best for you.

For your first shotgun, the gun makes I would recommend are the 3 Bs and R: Browning, Benelli, Beretta and Remington. You may also want to consider Ruger. While I haven’t heard anything about their shotguns, I do own 3 Ruger guns and am very pleased with their performance. Anything else is usually going to be either cheaply made or very expensive and unnecessary for first time gun buyers.

A used gun is usually a good choice for the first time gun owner. Guns last a very long time and can be a great investment. Buying a used gun will give you less of a loss if you decide the gun you bought isn’t for you. Most gun shops will offer some form of warranty on used guns in the event something is wrong with it.

There are some basic elements of all shotguns that you should consider: caliber, chambering, length, material, and choke tubes.


Courtesy of

Courtesy of

The first thing you want to consider is what gauge of shotgun you want. There are many types to choose from: 10, 12, 16, 20, 28, or .410. The smaller the gauge, the larger the size (i.e. 12 gauge is a larger shell than a 20 gauge). Assuming this is your first gun, you’d probably want to start with a 12 gauge, as they are readably available and the ammo is among the cheapest and most available. If you want to hunt as well as target shoot with your shotgun, a 12 gauge is the way to go.

If you don’t plan to do any hunting, or will only hunt small game, you should also consider a 20 gauge. They are the second most common gauge and the ammo is usually the same price as 12 gauge. The advantages of a 20 gauge are that they are lighter and have less of a recoil than the 12 gauge, allowing you to shoot longer and get more accustomed to the gun. The disadvantage is that there is less shot than a 12 gauge, so there is a smaller chance of hitting the target, although it is only a very small difference.

The 10 gauge will have too much kick for target shooting and is only recommended for self defense or hunting. The ammo is more expensive.

The 16 gauge is rather obscure and you can have a hard time finding ammo, unless you’re into reloading. There are also less options in terms of guns.

The 28 gauge and .410 (.410 is the size of the shell, 0.410 inches) should only be considered if you become very good with a 12 or 20 gauge and need more of a challenge on the field. There is less shot, so you have to be very accurate to hit a target. The advantages is that there is very little recoil so you can shoot for a long time, and they make a great option for children and some women (don’t get me wrong, its not a sexist comment. I’ve seen some women with a 12 gauge shatter my scores!!).


Depending on the gauge, you will have options for the size of the shells. For example, a 12 gauge shell can come in 2.75 inches, 3.00 inches, and 3.5 inches in length. The choice of length will all depend on the use. On a clay target field, you should only use 2.75” shells. However, if you plan on hunting, a 3” or 3.5” shell will contain more shot and have more incapacitating power. Some guns can only handle one size, some two sizes, and some can handle all three. Again, if you’re only target shooting, you’ll be fine with 2.75”, and you can still hunt with it.


Notice that the guns appear the same length due to the pump having a longer stock length

30" barrel vs 26" barrel. Notice that the guns appear the same length due to the pump having a longer stock length

The barrel length of the gun is another consideration when buying a shotgun. The length of the barrel can range from 24” to 32.” The shorter the barrel the lighter the gun. A shorter barrel also makes the gun easier to transport, especially if you’re carrying it through the woods for hunting. On the clay target range, you’ll generally see barrels in the 28-32” inch range. The theory is that a longer barrel allows you better tracking of the pigeon, and decreases the distance between the shot spread and target. I know people who swear by their 32” barrel, and I personally love my 30” barrel, however I don’t know of anybody who is handicapped by having a shorter barrel. This one will be a personal preference on your part.


There are a few different choices for the material of a gun. The stock and grip can be wood, rubber, or synthetic (plastics). The barrel can be stainless steel, blued or have a coating on it (such as a camo).

This is all a matter of personal preference. The majority of people you see on the clay field have wooden stocks, however synthetics can be a great choice as they are more durable and easier to care for.

In terms of barrel makup, stainless steel will be very heavy and expensive. Most guns are blued but you need to make sure it is well oiled after each use, or it can corrode. The easiest option is a coating which is easier to care for, but doesn’t quite look as good (only my opinion!).

Choke Tubes

Browning Invector Plus Choke Tubes: Skeet, Skeet, IC, MOD, FULL, Xtra full

Browning Invector Plus Choke Tubes: Skeet, Skeet, IC, MOD, FULL, Xtra full

When looking for a gun, make sure that they have choke tubes. Choke tubes are 4” or so long tubes that screw to the inside of the end of the barrel. They modify the spread of the shot depending on how far your target is. The way to check if the gun uses choke tubes is to look down the barrel (make sure it’s unloaded and the action is open!) and see if there are any divots at the top. This is where a choke tube wrench would unscrew it. If there are no divots reach your finger in and see if you can feel any threads. This is where the tube would screw in.

12ga Browning Over-Under showing choke tubes

12ga Browning Over-Under showing choke tubes

12 ga Benelli choke

12 ga Benelli choke

Choke tubes come in a wide range of sizes (most open to tightest): Skeet, Cylinder, Improved Cylinder, Modified, Improved Modified, Full, and Extra Full (Turkey), and even sizes in between! In general, you will only need Skeet, Improved Cylinder, and Full. It is a good idea to have a modified on hand, but I’ve never used mine.

The reason you would want to vary your pattern is so you have the most amount of pellets on the target when it gets there. For example, if you use a skeet tube on the trap field (where you should use a full) the shot pattern will expand so much by the time it gets to the target that it will likely just fly around the bird. Conversely, if you use a full choke on a skeet field, the pattern will be so tight that you have to be extremely accurate in order to hit the target. However, when you do hit it, it will explode into a thousand pieces (which is awesome!).

Now onto the guns! There are 3 basic types of shotguns to consider: pump, semi-auto, or double barrel.


Benelli SuperNova Pump

Benelli SuperNova Pump

A pump shotgun is just that. You have to pump the slide to cycle through the rounds. They are generally the cheapest option as you’re doing all the work instead of mechanics. A pump shotgun will hold from 2 to 8 rounds depending on the gun and restrictor. A pump shotgun is also usually the most durable and is an excellent choice of you’re going to be hunting in wet and swampy conditions, as there is smaller chance of the gun jamming up. It also sounds awesome when you pump it, just like in a video game. The disadvantage of a pump is that it’s a pump. When you’re hunting or on the field and need to take a second shot, you need to pump the gun before you can take the shot. You can lose precious time by having to pump. However, I’ve seen guys with pumps where it is second nature to pump and their scores do not suffer at all.

Guns to consider:

Benelli Nova Pump $340-$430 or SuperNova Pump $440-$530:

Remington Model 870 $320-$750:

Browning: BPS $600-$1400: Browning BPS


Beretta AL391 Semi-Auto

Beretta AL391 Semi-Auto Courtesy of

A semi auto will use the recoil from the last shot to cycle in the next shell. Like the pump, they can hold 2 to 8 shells. They make an excellent choice if you’ll be doing a lot of hunting as well as target shooting. There is no wait in between shots so you can take your next shot almost instantly. The only disadvantages are that the gun can sometimes jam and there is only one barrel (only one choice of choke).

Guns to consider:

Benelli: Vinci ~$1400, Super Black Eagle II $1250-$1600, any Benelli really:

Beretta: AL Series $440-$1300, Xtrema2 $1200-$1700, any Beretta really: Beretta Semi Autos

Browning: A5 or Maxus $1200-$1400: Browning Gun Finder

Remington: 1100 $640-$1000 or 11-87 $600-$940:

Double Barrel
The double-barreled shotgun can be split up into two categories: side by side and over-under. You should not consider a side by side for target shooting as they are usually pretty cheap and most do not have choke tubes.

Side by Side Shotgun curtesy of

Side by Side Shotgun curtesy of

By far the most common gun you will see on the clay target field is an over-under. This gun has one barrel on top of the other. It breaks open at the end of the barrel to load two shells. It has one trigger that you can set to either fire the top or bottom barrel first. The inertia from the first shot will reset the mechanics to shoot the other barrel upon the next trigger pull.

12 ga Browning Citori 425 Over-Under Shotgun

12 ga Browning Citori 425 Over-Under Shotgun

The advantages of an over-under are that they are relatively simple and almost never fail, as there are no significant moving parts that can fail between shots. This means that they are also easier to maintain.

The fact that there are two barrels allows you to use two separate chokes. This means you can set it to the choke needed depending on the distance to your target. This is a big advantage when you’re out on a 5-stand course, sporting clays or even hunting.

All guns need to be unloaded with the action open when not shooting on a course. With an over-under you can tell at a glance whether this is the case. They are also very easy to load when it is your turn to shoot. These guns also happen to be among the most beautiful of the shotguns (in my opinion).

Over-Under vs Pump Action Opened

Over-Under vs Pump Action Opened

The disadvantages of an over-under are that you only get two shots before you need to reload. This isn’t a problem on any clay target field, but if you’re hunting you may want more shots. Another potential disadvantage is that your gun is so beautiful you may not want to take it out hunting where it could get dirty!

Guns to consider:

Browning: Citori $1,800-$4,000 or Cynergy $2,000-$4,500: Browning Shotguns

Beretta: 686 or 687 $1,600-$9,500: Beretta Over-Unders

Remington: Premier ~$1,400: Remington Premier
In the end its all going to come down to price and how the gun feels to you. Go to a gun store and feel all the shotguns. Put them up to your shoulder and see how it feels. If you get a gun that doesn’t fit you, you’ll have a hard time shooting and may not enjoy it as much.

I hope this article was helpful and informative. If anything was unclear or you’d like more elaboration, please leave a comment or e-mail me at

51 thoughts on “Comprehensive Guide to Buying Your First Shotgun

  1. Hi Betty, yes that choke will unscrew easily and can be replaced with another Mosberg choke. Happy shooting!

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